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ASEAN
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APEC dr_dot2009-2010
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Key policy issues in intellectual property and technology in Asia Pacific

Article Index
Key policy issues in intellectual property and technology in Asia Pacific
Copyright and its impact on access to knowledge and technology
Flexibilities under TRIPS
Non-proprietary models
Strong vs. weak IPR
Bilateral agreements and TRIPS-plus standards
Multilateralism as the way ahead for developing countries
Conclusion
Notes

Notes

1 For more information on the WIPO Development agenda, see http://www.cptech.org/ip/wipo/da.html

2 In 1994, China accounted for 4.9 per cent of global R&D expenditure, India and Central Asia for 2.2 per cent, Latin America for 1.9 per cent, the Pacific and Southeast Asia 0.9 per cent (excluding newly industrialised countries) and sub-Saharan Africa 0.5 per cent (UNESCO 1998).

3 OECD R&D Expenditure in 1999 was USD 553 billion (OECD 2001) while India's national income was USD 440 billion (World Bank Data).

4 A number of activists and scholars have argued that we need to avoid using the phrase 'intellectual property' since it conceals more than it reveals. The phrase covers a range of property claims—trademarks, copyright, patents, geographical indications, etc.—all of which belong to distinct domains. We acknowledge this to be a serious question, and use the phrase in reference to its global usage but with a certain degree of agnosticism.

5 The A2K treaty is a multilateral treaty initiated by Consumer Project on Technology (Cptech) and it attempts to carve out global exceptions to copyright for education and other uses. For a full text of the draft treaty, see http://www.cptech.org/a2k/a2k_treaty_may9.pdf

6 See the FTA Network website at http://www.iesingapore.gov.sg/wps/portal

7 Section 55(4)(b)(ii), Trade Marks Act, Cap 332, 1999 Rev. Ed. (available at http://statutes.agc.gov.sg). This provision provides a remedy to proprietors of well-known marks against persons who have business identifiers that are either identical or have an essential part that is identical to the well-known mark. The remedy is available where there has been dilution in an unfair manner of the distinctive character of the well-known mark, or where the said business identifier would take unfair advantage of the distinctive character of the well-known mark.

8 Singapore's obligations as a signatory of the UPOV 1991 Convention have been enacted into law as the Plant Variety Protection Act 2004, Act 22 of 2004 (available at http://statutes.agc.gov.sg).

9 For the duration of copyright where the copyright subsists in a literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph, see Section 28(2), Copyright Act, Cap 63, 1999 Rev. Ed. For the duration of copyright in other works like sound recordings, cinematograph films, television broadcasts and sound broadcasts, cable programmes and published editions of works, see Sections 92 to 96, Copyright Act (available at http://statutes.agc.gov.sg).

10 For provisions on optical disc manufacturing, please see Manufacture of Optical Discs Act 2004, Act 25 of 2004 (available at http://statutes.agc.gov.sg).

11 Feedback was obtained from copyright owners, educational institutions, archives, scholars, researchers and the general public.

12 For example, the Copyright (Excluded Works) Order 2005, which excludes any literary work in eBook format and for which a technological access control measure was applied to all editions including digital text editions made available by an institution assisting handicapped readers.

13 For example, Thailand and Malaysia.

14 APEC trade agreements include those between Singapore and New Zealand, Singapore and Japan, Singapore and the United States, Singapore and Australia, Chile and five other APEC Member Economies, and the European Free Trade Association and China and Hong Kong. Thailand has signed FTAs with Laos and Australia, while ASEAN signed an agreement with India.

15 See the APEC Action Agenda for the New Economy (2000) and the e-APEC Strategy (2001) for the region to have community-based access to the Internet by 2010 and to increase learning and employment opportunities, improve public services and promote universal for ICT and information services.

16 Set up by Chinese Taipei in 2000, it has led camps and workshops on technology.

17 Examples of IP offices that are state-of-art are those of Singapore, Japan, Korea, Chinese Taipei, Thailand and Malaysia. Such an IP office is also being created in Brunei Darussalam.

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